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Science Research Guide: Famous Chemist

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Chemists

Henry Cavendish

Henry Cavendish

Many achievements in the field of chemistry, including distinguishing hydrogen from ordinary air. Also was quite unusual in many ways.

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Major contributions in chemistry include: being the father of cryogenics, discovering the compound benzene, and devised laws of electrolysis that showed a connection between chemistry and electricity.

Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Franklin

"A geneticist whose work on X-ray diffraction helped lead to the discovery of the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which directs cell growth."

Dorothy Hodgkin

Dorothy Hodgkin

"Began a new era in science by employing the technique of X-ray crystallography to determine the molecular structures of several large biochemical molecules. Hodgkin was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in chemistry for determining the structure of both penicillin and vitamin B12."

 

Percy Lavon Julian

Percy Lavon Julian

"Best known for discovering how to synthesize (produce in the laboratory) physostigmine, a chemical used to treat the eye disease glaucoma."

Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling

"His 1954 Nobel Prize for chemistry was given in recognition of his work on the nature of the chemical bond, and his 1962 Nobel Prize for peace was awarded for his efforts to bring about an end to the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons."

Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sanger

"In 1958 he received the award for determining the arrangement of the amino acids that make up insulin, becoming the first person to thusly identify a protein molecule. In 1980 Sanger shared the award with two other scientists, being cited for his work in determining the sequences of nucleic acids in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules."

Glenn Seaborg

Glenn Seaborg

"A pioneering nuclear chemist whose work with isotopes and transuranium elements contributed to the development of nuclear technology in medicine, power, and weapons."

John Dalton

John Dalton

"His theories would lead to the creation of the study of chemistry...his work in meteorology led him to speculate about the behavior of gases, and he eventually arrived at the idea that all elements, including gases, are made up of tiny particles that have the same weight and are in fact identical in each element."

Marie Curie

Marie Curie

"Developed and introduced the concept of radioactivity to the world."

Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine Lavoisier

"Established the practice of accurate measurement that underlies all valid quantitative experiments. He also developed the first rational system for naming chemical compounds--a system that is still used today."

Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev

"Development of the periodic table, a method of organizing and listing known chemical elements."

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur

"Pasteur's work on tartaric and racemic acids led to his first major discovery and gave an impressive boost to his career. Tartaric and racemic acids had the same chemical composition and structure, differing only in how they affected polarized light."

Akira Suzuki

Akira Suzuki

"Suzuki was awarded a share of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic chemistry."

Robert Robinson

Robert Robinson

"Robert Robinson worked on many types of chemical problems, but he received the 1947 Nobel Prize for his work with the alkaloids, complex nitrogen-containing natural compounds that often exhibit high biological activity."

Susan Solomon

Susan Solomon

"Susan Solomon helped discover the ways in which certain chemicals destroy the protective ozone layer of Earth’s atmosphere."

Jennifer Doudna

Jennifer Doudna

"Jennifer Doudna is an American biochemist and professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Her work, especially her collaboration with microbiologist Emmanuelle Charpentier, has led to revolutionary techniques in the field of genome editing."

Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel

The inventor of dynamite and the creator of the Nobel Foundation.

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